فروشگاه

Points employed in the cephalometric

Points employed in the cephalometric analysis. 1. Glabella (G): most anterior point on the soft tissue contour of the forehead. 2. Soft tissue nasion (N9): most posterior point on the soft tissue contour on the area of the frontonasal suture. 3. Pronasale (Pr): most anterior point of the nose. 4. Columella (Col): point on the lower surface of the nose, determining the anterior limit of the nasolabial angle. 5. Subnasale (Sn): intersection between the columella and the upper lip. 6. Labrale superius (Ls): most anterior point of the upper lip. 7. Labrale inferius (Li): most anterior point of the lower lip. 8. Soft tissue pogonion (P9): most anterior point on the soft tissue contour on the mentum. 9. Soft tissue gnathion (Gn9): midpoint between the most anterior and inferior points on the soft tissue contour of the mentum. 10. Soft tissue mentum (Me9): most inferior point below the soft tissue contour of the mentum. 11. Nasion (N): most anterior point of the frontonasal suture. 12. Nasale (Na): most inferior point of the nasal bone. 13. Orbitale (Or): most inferior point of the infraorbital ridge. 14. Posterior nasal spine (PNS): tip of the posterior nasal spine. 15. Anterior nasal spine (ANS): tip of the anterior nasal spine. 16. Subspinale (A): deepest point below the anterior nasal spine. 17. Apex of maxillary incisor (U1A). 18. Incisal tip of maxillary incisor (U1T). 19. Incisal tip of mandibular incisor (L1T). 20. Apex of mandibular incisor (L1A). 21. Supramentale (B): most posterior point on the anterior mandibular contour. 22. Pogonion (P): most anterior point of the bone mentum. 23. Gnathion (Gn): midpoint between the most anterior and inferior points of the bone mentum. 24. Mentum (Me): most inferior point in the contour of the mandibular symphysis. 25. Gonion (Go): midpoint between the most posterior and inferior points of the mandibular angle. 26. Condylion (Co): most posterior and superior point of the mandibular condyle. 27. Articulare (Ar): point on the intersection between the posterior border of the ramus and lower border of the cranial base. 28. Basion (Ba): most inferior point of the anterior border of the foramen magnum. 29. Porion (Po): most superior point of the external acoustic meatus. 30. Sella (S): visually determined geometrical center of the sella turcica. 31. Pterygomaxillary fissure (PTM): most posterior point of the pterygomaxillary fissure. 32. Palatal vault (V): most posterior point of the superior contour of the soft palate. 33. Upper pharyngeal wall (UPW): point on the posterior pharyngeal wall at the level of point V. 34. Uvula (U): most inferior point of the uvula contour. 35. Lower pharyngeal wall (LPW): point on the posterior pharyngeal wall at the level of point U.

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد.